In response to the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, President Trump signed into law the Families First Coronavirus Response Act (FFCRA) on Wednesday, March 18, 2020.
On Tuesday, March 24, 2020 the Department of Labor (DOL) issued additional guidance to help employers and employees better understand the law:
- Families First Coronavirus Response Act: Questions and Answers,
- Employer Expanded Family and Medical Leave Requirements
- Employee Expanded Family and Medical Leave Rights.
FFCRA creates two new paid leave programs that take effect on April 2, 2020 and expire on December 31, 2020. The new paid leave provisions apply to all government employers and private-sector employers with fewer than 500 workers. In addition, it includes a series of tax credits that help offset the cost to employers of the new paid leave programs.
The DOL’s Questions and Answers document covers a wide-range of questions that employers and employees are asking about FFCRA, including:
As an employer, how do I know if my business is under the 500-employee threshold and therefore must provide paid sick leave or expanded family and medical leave?
You have fewer than 500 employees if, at the time your employee’s leave is to be taken, you employ fewer than 500 full-time and part-time employees within the United States, which includes any State of the United States, the District of Columbia, or any Territory or possession of the United States. In making this determination, you should include employees on leave; temporary employees who are jointly employed by you and another employer (regardless of whether the jointly-employed employees are maintained on only your or another employer’s payroll); and day laborers supplied by a temporary agency (regardless of whether you are the temporary agency or the client firm if there is a continuing employment relationship). Workers who are independent contractors under the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA), rather than employees, are not considered employees for purposes of the 500-employee threshold.
Typically, a corporation (including its separate establishments or divisions) is considered to be a single employer and its employees must each be counted towards the 500-employee threshold. Where a corporation has an ownership interest in another corporation, the two corporations are separate employers unless they are joint employers under the FLSA with respect to certain employees. If two entities are found to be joint employers, all of their common employees must be counted in determining whether paid sick leave must be provided under the Emergency Paid Sick Leave Act and expanded family and medical leave must be provided under the Emergency Family and Medical Leave Expansion Act.
In general, two or more entities are separate employers unless they meet the integrated employer test under the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (FMLA). If two entities are an integrated employer under the FMLA, then employees of all entities making up the integrated employer will be counted in determining employer coverage for purposes of expanded family and medical leave under the Emergency Family and Medical Leave Expansion Act.
How do I count hours worked by a part-time employee for purposes of paid sick leave or expanded family and medical leave?
A part-time employee is entitled to leave for his or her average number of work hours in a two-week period. Therefore, you calculate hours of leave based on the number of hours the employee is normally scheduled to work. If the normal hours scheduled are unknown, or if the part-time employee’s schedule varies, you may use a six-month average to calculate the average daily hours. Such a part-time employee may take paid sick leave for this number of hours per day for up to a two-week period, and may take expanded family and medical leave for the same number of hours per day up to ten weeks after that.
If this calculation cannot be made because the employee has not been employed for at least six months, use the number of hours that you and your employee agreed that the employee would work upon hiring. And if there is no such agreement, you may calculate the appropriate number of hours of leave based on the average hours per day the employee was scheduled to work over the entire term of his or her employment.
When calculating pay due to employees, must overtime hours be included?
Yes. The Emergency Family and Medical Leave Expansion Act requires you to pay an employee for hours the employee would have been normally scheduled to work even if that is more than 40 hours in a week.
However, the Emergency Paid Sick Leave Act requires that paid sick leave be paid only up to 80 hours over a two-week period. For example, an employee who is scheduled to work 50 hours a week may take 50 hours of paid sick leave in the first week and 30 hours of paid sick leave in the second week. In any event, the total number of hours paid under the Emergency Paid Sick Leave Act is capped at 80.
If the employee’s schedule varies from week to week, please see the answer to Question 5, because the calculation of hours for a full-time employee with a varying schedule is the same as that for a part-time employee.
Please keep in mind the daily and aggregate caps placed on any pay for paid sick leave and expanded family and medical leave as described in the answer to Question 7.
Please note that pay does not need to include a premium for overtime hours under either the Emergency Paid Sick Leave Act or the Emergency Family and Medical Leave Expansion Act.
[Upcoming Webcast: Understanding the Families First Coronavirus Response Act (FFCRA) of 2020 |March 31, 2020]
As an employee, how much will I be paid while taking paid sick leave or expanded family and medical leave under the FFCRA?
It depends on your normal schedule as well as why you are taking leave.
If you are taking paid sick leave because you are unable to work or telework due to a need for leave because you (1) are subject to a Federal, State, or local quarantine or isolation order related to COVID-19; (2) have been advised by a health care provider to self-quarantine due to concerns related to COVID-19; or (3) are experiencing symptoms of COVID-19 and are seeking medical diagnosis, you will receive for each applicable hour the greater of:
- your regular rate of pay,
- the federal minimum wage in effect under the FLSA, or
- the applicable State or local minimum wage.
In these circumstances, you are entitled to a maximum of $511 per day, or $5,110 total over the entire paid sick leave period.
If you are taking paid sick leave because you are: (1) caring for an individual who is subject to a Federal, State, or local quarantine or isolation order related to COVID-19 or an individual who has been advised by a health care provider to self-quarantine due to concerns related to COVID-19; (2) caring for your child whose school or place of care is closed, or child care provider is unavailable, due to COVID-19 related reasons; or (3) experiencing any other substantially-similar condition that may arise, as specified by the Secretary of Health and Human Services, you are entitled to compensation at 2/3 of the greater of the amounts above.
Under these circumstances, you are subject to a maximum of $200 per day, or $2,000 over the entire two week period.
If you are taking expanded family and medical leave, you may take paid sick leave for the first ten days of that leave period, or you may substitute any accrued vacation leave, personal leave, or medical or sick leave you have under your employer’s policy. For the following ten weeks, you will be paid for your leave at an amount no less than 2/3 of your regular rate of pay for the hours you would be normally scheduled to work. The regular rate of pay used to calculate this amount must be at or above the federal minimum wage, or the applicable state or local minimum wage. However, you will not receive more than $200 per day or $12,000 for the twelve weeks that include both paid sick leave and expanded family and medical leave when you are on leave to care for your child whose school or place of care is closed, or child care provider is unavailable, due to COVID-19 related reasons.
You can read the DOL’s full Families First Coronavirus Response Act: Questions and Answers document here.
Employers should stay tuned for additional FFCRA guidance. Yesterday’s press release from the DOL notes: “The guidance announced today is just the first round of information and compliance assistance to come from WHD. A workplace poster required for most employers will be published later this week, along with additional fact sheets and more Q&A.” (Update here: DOL Issues FFCRA Model Notices and Posting FAQs)
Coronavirus and the Workplace
To learn more about the coronavirus and the workplace, including the latest guidance on FFCRA, visit:
- The International Foundation Coronavirus (COVID-19) Resources page
- Posts from Word on Benefits:
- Coronavirus in the Workplace: Regulatory Considerations for U.S. Employers
- Law Enacted to Enable Free Coronavirus Testing and Expand Paid Leave: Families First Coronavirus Response Act (FFCRA)
- Free Member Webcasts:
- Coronavirus in the Workplace: U.S. Regulatory Considerations | Available on demand
Communications Manager at the International Foundation
Hi there. My name is Debbie. I’m a nurse and work in a substance abuse and mental health facility. We have up 100-140 clients at a time. I usually work 1 -2 shifts a week. I have a lung disease and was advised to remain home during this Coronavirus panedemic by my health care worker. I was wondering could i qualify for unemployment until i can return to my job?
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